E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker, popularly known as Periyar launched the self respect movement in 1925 aimed at awakening the non-Brahmins. The movements orga­nised (i) Wedding without involvement of Brahmin Priests, (ii) The burning of Manusmriti and (iii) Forcible temple entry. He published a Journal ‘Kudi Arasu’ which reflected his ideology. He popularised the theory of Aryan invasion on Dravid land. He renamed the Justice

Major Movements of Depressed Class
in Modern India

  • Aravipuram Movement: Sri Narayan Guru
  • Nair Service Society : Ramakrishna Pillai and Mannath Padmanabha Pillai
  • Bahujan Samaj Movement: Bhaskar Rao Jadhav
  • Praja Mitra Mandali: R. Reddy
  • Depressed Classes Movement: R. Ambedkar
  • Scheduled Caste Federation: R. Ambedkar
  • Satya Shodhak Samaj: Jyotiba Phule
  • SNDPY : Shri Narayan Guru
  • Harijan Sevak Sangh: Mahatma Gandhi
  • Justice Party Movement: T. M. Nair, Chettiar

Self Respect Movement: Periyar ________

Party as Dravida Kazhagam. Many leaders led by C.N. Annadurai formed a separate party in 1949 which came to be known as Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (D.M.K.).



Founded in          : 1861 A.D.

Founder               : Tulsi Ram


The Radhaswami Movement was founded in 1861 in Agra by Tulsi Ram, popularly known as Shiv Dayal Saheb or Swamiji Maharaj. The Radhaswamis believe in one Supreme Power, the supremacy of Guru and a company of the pious people i.e., Satsang. It laid emphasis on simple social life. The Radhaswamis also believed in the balance of worldly life and spiritualism. It opposed any spiritual attainment at the cost of normal worldly life.

Beliefs and Principles

Major beliefs and principles of the Radhaswamis are as follow:

  • All religions are true.
  • There is one supreme being and a Guru.
  • There should be a simple social life of everyone.
  • There is no need to renounce the worldly life for spiritual attainments.
  • It believes that God is omnipresent so it recognises no temples, shrines or sacred places.
  • It believes charity, the spirit of service etc. as the soul of religion.

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