Be embarking upon new stimulating activities, life will become more and more demanding and interesting for you. And you will become an even more interesting personality.
Another way to give refreshing novelty and robustness to your personality is to challenge and question things connected with yourself and with others.
Get into the habit of posing questions to yourself like : Why is this as it is ? How long have things been like this ? Who or what is responsible ? Why is this required ? What justification is there for this ? For believing this ?
The more persistently you press home these questions, the more you will be prompted to think deeply and to pursue knowledge. If and why you approach others with such questions, you must do so with tact. Such activity on your part will lead you to become self-reliant, courageous, an independent thinker, and one capable of interesting conversation on a multitude of subjects.
The way to a person’s esteem is to boost his ego. This is most effectively done by being generous in praising him and showing him appreciation.
The fact is that each of us longs to be significant. We crave for praise and appreciation. We are drawn as though under a spell to those who meet this basic need of our nature.
Similarly, others will be drawn to us as we meet their need.
Be ready, then, to give praise where it is deserved. Be prompt to show appreciation of hard work, enterprise, careful thought good organisation, skills and excellence in whatever form.
Be prompt, too with the graceful compliment which may sometimes be indirect or half-concealed. It must be emphasised that insincertiy and flattery are not being advocated. What is in mind is a sensitive awareness of merit and a thoughtful readiness to let the person concerned know that some worthy effort or attribute has not gone unspotted.
Always bear in mind that to refuse praise is to censure!
Looking at things through the eyes of others is a certain way of developing understanding and sympathy. When others feel we have these qualities, they are bound but find us attractive.
This goodness also fosters tolerance and friendliness whether in private, social or family spheres. There would be far fewer conflicts if this habit were to become commonly cultivated.
Others will always give favourable assessments of our personalities when they discover that we have the ability to look at things from their point of view.
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strengthen their dialogue on regional security issues of mutual interest. Both countries agreed to fortify their efforts in international fora in the future, including by strengthening their cooperation in the framework of the Indian Ocean Rim Association. They desired to explore opportunities for South-South cooperation in sub- Saharan Africa, particularly through trade and investment, grants and loans, collaboration in trade and technology, and joint projects. These efforts shall be aimed at supporting the implementation of Sustainable Development Goals.
At the end, the two leaders reaffirmed their commitment to building a comprehensive strategic partnership for the 21st century, noting that regular high-level exchanges play a key role in enhancing the partnership between India and the UAE. Thus, we are likely to see more such high level exchanges between the two countries in near future.
The region of West Asia holds special significance in the policy framework of rising India. Nearly seventy per cent of India’s energy needs are met from external sources. The region of West gate books Asia plays a dominant role in the supply of oil and natural gas to India. The UAE is the gateway to West Asia. A large number of Indians are living in West Asia and they are a source of considerable foreign exchange to India. India is equally concerned with their safety and welfare.
This needs active cooperation with the host countries. Strategically, the region of West Asia is in turmoil due to religious extremism and terrorism, which also affects India as many of the terrorist groups active across India have their roots in West Asia. Besides, a rising India needs ample opportunities for her trade and investment and this region has ample scope for such opportunities. The UAE is like a gateway to reach West Asia. India has moved in the right direction by initiating the process of strategic partnership with UAE, which will prove mutually beneficial to both countries and would be helpful in protecting India’s core interest in the region.
The two leaders re-affirmed their commitment to building a comprehensive strategic partnership for the 21st century, noting that regular high- level exchanges play a key role in enhancing the partnership between India and the UAE.
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The two day official visit of Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed A1 Nahyan, Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi and Deputy Supreme Commander of the UAE Armed Forces to India on 10 to February 12, 2016 underlines the desire of the two extended neigh- * bours to consolidate their multidimensional ties. This visit, if seen in the light of the two day visit (August 16-17, 2015) of Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi to UAE, assumes special significance. During Modi’s visit, both countries signed the joint statement to elevate their relations to the level of strategic partnership. Zayed A1 Nahyan’s India visit is intended to carry forward this strategic partnership in the mutually beneficial manner. Otherwise also, UAE holds special attention among the Indian policy makers. Out of the 26 million people of UAE, Indian community constitutes one-third of the population. Thus, it is not an exaggeration that UAE is called as ‘mini India’’ This Indian community is a rich source of foreign remittances to India. UAE is also a western gateway for India to reach the oil rich region of West Asia.
India has many strategic, economic and energy interests in the region of West Asia. First, India’s energy security is dependent on the supply of oil and gas from this region. India imports nearly three-fourth of her external energy from this region. Thus cultivating close ties with the UAE and other countries is crucial for India’s energy security. Secondly, there are 70 million Indians employed
ravaged terrain. The international community is required to make serious attempt to find a lasting solution of this problem. For this the terrorist elements like IS and A1 Nusra Front need to be subjugated. Only a political consensus on the future of Syria can produce a lasting solution. Geneva peace process needs to be salvaged as soon as possible. Alternatively, if Assad regime gains military victory, it would produce an uneasy calm, not a lasting solution of the crisis.
in different countries of west Asia and Gulf region. Third, India has been and continues to be victim of religious terrorism supported and sustained from across the Indian borders. The pan-regional network of this terrorism and its religious background is a cause of concern to Indian security and stability in India. Many times, Arab countries have supported Pakistan cause in Afghanistan and many terrorist elements active across Indian border have close linkages in the Middle East. During cold war, India had been a staunch supporter of Palestine cause in the Arab-Israel conflict. But in the post-cold war era India has adopted a balancing posture towards both parties. This makes India to pay more attention to this region and beginning of strategic partnership with UAE is in right direction.
Joint Statement—The three-day visit of Zayed A1 Nahyanm the Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi to India on February 10-12, 2016 enabled both sides to hold high level consultations on various bilateral, regional and global issues of mutual interest. Besides consultation, both sides signed nine agreements for cooperation in various areas. The main points of the Joint Statement signed between the two countries are given below :
- Both sides recognized the fact that they enjoy strong bonds of friendship based on civilizational links, age-old maritime trade and vibrant people-to-people contacts. In modem times, some factors like close geographical proximity, historical
links, cultural affinity, natural syne: gies, shared aspirations and commcc challenges provide further impetus : this robust engagement.
- The statement underlined tf – collective ambition of the two cour tries to strengthen their cooperatio: in several key areas, including trad and investment, security, counter terrorism, joint defence productior space cooperation, IT and electronics
- Both leaders looked forwar; for the early signing of the Comprehensive Strategic Partnership Agreement, and resolved to pursue the following areas of collaboration :
(a) Trade, Investment and Economic Cooperation—It has beer
given priority by both sides. IAE is India’s third largest trading partner after China and US. For UAE, Ind: was the largest trading partner ir 2014-15. At present the bilateral Indo- UAE trade stands at $ 59 billion which is mostly dominated by India 1 oil bill. The share of oil and gas import from the UAE is $ 31 billion Hence they decided to strengthen the trade ties with focus on diversifying non-oil trade. The leaders alsc decided to enhance bilateral trade by 60 per cent in next five years. Trade promotion measures will be put in place to diversify and enhance bilateral trade.
UAE leader appreciated India’s dynamic economy particularly the new initiatives like ‘Make in India’ ‘Clean India’, ‘Smart City’ and Start Up programmes. Both sides also discuss’d their plan for infrastructure development. Indian side highlighted India’s experience in launching large infrastructure development programmes and conveyed the interest of Indian companies to be the partner in the infrastructure projects undertaken by the UAE. The UAE leader appreciated India’s efforts to simplify and rationalize existing rules and relax foreign direct investment caps in key areas, including railways, defence, and insurance. Prime Minister Modi invited the UAE to be a partner in India’s growth story, and to participate in projects creating mega industrial manufacturing corridors, including the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor as well as the Digital India and Start-up India programs. The UAE noted its interest
Founded in : 1887 A.D.
Founder : Shiv Narain Agnihotri
The Deva Samaj Movement was founded in 1887 A.D. in Lahore (now in Pakistan) by Shiv Narain Agnihotri. Shiv Narain was also influenced bv* the teachings of the Brahmo Samaj. Deva Shastra is the book of teachings of the Deva Samaj. Like other socio-religious reform movements the Deva Samaj also worked to eradicate many evils prevalent in that time society like gambling, intoxications, violence etc.
Principles and Objectives
Major teachings and objectives of the Deva Samaj are as follows:
- Deva Samaj believes in eternity of soul.
9 It believes in the existence of a ‘Supreme Power’.
- It also recognizes the supremacy of the Guru.
- It emphasizes a human life based on good deeds and principles.
- The Deva Samaj prescribed ideal social conduct and moral ethics, such as not accepting bribe, abstaining from gambling, intoxications, violence etc.
SELF RESPECT MOVEMENT
E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker, popularly known as Periyar launched the self respect movement in 1925 aimed at awakening the non-Brahmins. The movements organised (i) Wedding without involvement of Brahmin Priests, (ii) The burning of Manusmriti and (iii) Forcible temple entry. He published a Journal ‘Kudi Arasu’ which reflected his ideology. He popularised the theory of Aryan invasion on Dravid land. He renamed the Justice
Major Movements of Depressed Class
in Modern India
- Aravipuram Movement: Sri Narayan Guru
- Nair Service Society : Ramakrishna Pillai and Mannath Padmanabha Pillai
- Bahujan Samaj Movement: Bhaskar Rao Jadhav
- Praja Mitra Mandali: R. Reddy
- Depressed Classes Movement: R. Ambedkar
- Scheduled Caste Federation: R. Ambedkar
- Satya Shodhak Samaj: Jyotiba Phule
- SNDPY : Shri Narayan Guru
- Harijan Sevak Sangh: Mahatma Gandhi
- Justice Party Movement: T. M. Nair, Chettiar
Self Respect Movement: Periyar ________
Party as Dravida Kazhagam. Many leaders led by C.N. Annadurai formed a separate party in 1949 which came to be known as Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (D.M.K.).
Founded in : 1861 A.D.
Founder : Tulsi Ram
The Radhaswami Movement was founded in 1861 in Agra by Tulsi Ram, popularly known as Shiv Dayal Saheb or Swamiji Maharaj. The Radhaswamis believe in one Supreme Power, the supremacy of Guru and a company of the pious people i.e., Satsang. It laid emphasis on simple social life. The Radhaswamis also believed in the balance of worldly life and spiritualism. It opposed any spiritual attainment at the cost of normal worldly life.
Beliefs and Principles
Major beliefs and principles of the Radhaswamis are as follow:
- All religions are true.
- There is one supreme being and a Guru.
- There should be a simple social life of everyone.
- There is no need to renounce the worldly life for spiritual attainments.
- It believes that God is omnipresent so it recognises no temples, shrines or sacred places.
- It believes charity, the spirit of service etc. as the soul of religion.
Dr. T. M. Nair, the Raja of Panagal and Sri Pitti Theagaraja Chettiar organised the first Non-Brahminical organisation called South Indian Federation, which later came to be commonly known as the Justice Party in November 1916. The demand for reservation was raised for the first time in India when the Party demanded the representation of non-Brahmins in government jobs. The Justice Party propagated its views and ideology through its newspaper named Justice. The Justice Party was considered to be an organised reaction against Brahminical domination over the Hindu Society. The chief aim of the party was to fight against the evils of untouchability and deprivation of some sections of the society from their common human rights. The Party basically focussed on the social equality to all and opposed any discrimination against the weaker sections especially caste-based of the Hindu society.
Election of Ramaswamy Naicker as the President of the Justice Party in 1937 A.D. gave a new zeal and vigour to the organisation. It became more reactionary in its tone and style of working. Naicker denounced Hinduism as an instrument of Brahminical control, the laws of Manu as inhuman and the Puranas as fairy tales. He also opposed imposition of Hindi on South India. During his period the Justice Party launched severe ideological onslaughts against Brahminical dominance.
The main contribution of Justice Party was the passing of a government order in 1930 which provided reservations for various groups including non-Brahmins. In 1944, the Justice Party became Dravida Kazhagam. Ramaswamy Naicker’s followers called him a Thanthai (father) and Periyar (Great soul).